Hygiene education and AIDS prevention
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- Last updated：2020-04-15
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u Hygiene education and AIDS prevention
I. AIDS prevention
1. HIV is human immunodeficiency virus, also known as AIDS virus. AIDS is the abbreviation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and that is the end stage symptom infected by human immunodeficiency virus. They define different meanings.
2. In brief, HIV is human immunodeficiency virus infection. AIDS means immune system has been destroyed, no resistance existed in body and people will become ill and die as soon as germs attack.
3. HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection routes:
(1) Sex conduct (Infection risks: vaginal sex: 0.03-0.25%, anal sex: 0.8-3.2% )
(2) Tattoos, ear and nose piercing, etc.
(3) Drug injection (sharing needles and solutions)
(4) Professional exposure (e.g., medical care staff)
(5) Medical blood transfusion and organ transplantation
(6) Mother-to-infant transmission: pregnancy/child delivery, breast milk feeding
(7) HIV is transmitted with body fluids. The infection risks are ranked as following:
blood>semen>vaginal discharge>amniotic fluid>saliva (almost zero)
4. Body fluids that can transmit HIV (AIDS virus) infection
(1) Blood, semen, vaginal discharge, breast milk, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, amniotic fluid.
(2) Minute amount of HIV (AIDS virus) has been detected in saliva and tears. However, up to now, no cases were reported with HIV infection by contacting saliva and tears.
(3) No HIV (AIDS virus) has been detected in sweat.
5. Routes that don’t transmit HIV (AIDS virus) infection
(1) Kiss, mosquito bites
(2) Daily general moves: hug, hand shaking, eating together, sharing toilet, washing machine, telephone and faucet, swimming, going to class together, etc.
6. Ways of preventing HIV (AIDS virus) infection;
(1) Have fixed sexual partners, avoiding sexual contacts with strangers.
(2) Safe sex conduct: proper use of condoms, avoiding deep-kiss and oral sex, no body fluid exchanges.
(3) Avoid sharing needles and solutions.
(4) Pregnant women must perform HIV screening.
7. How to know that I am infected with HIV?
(1) There are not necessary symptoms in the early stage of infection, and the infection can only be tested in hospitals.
(2) Window period: the period during 6-12 weeks after infection. The possibilities of AIDS virus infection cannot be totally ruled out yet, but the individual may be infectious.
(3) Acute phase: there may be symptoms similar to flu. (There are only about half cases showing symptoms.)
(4) Incubation period: it may be as long as 10 years or more. Most infected individuals have no obvious symptoms during this period.
(5) Onset period: Immune system has become unable to fight against any germs and the disease proceeds into AIDS phase.
8. Treatments of AIDS: Prevention is better than cure.
(1) HIV is weak in the early phase of infection. 28-day continuous medicine administrations within 72 hours after unsafe sex conduct may reduce 80-100% infection rate.
(2) As positive HIV-test is confirmed, you must visit hospital for regular follow-up and medications. (Cocktail therapy may control the process well.)
II. Hygiene education
1. Chewing betel nuts will darken teeth, cause gum damages and periodontal disease.
2. Chewing betel nuts will cause oral cancer. There are about 2,500 persons lose their precious lives because of the cancer every year. The carcinogenic rate of chewing betel nuts is as follows:
(1) People chewing betel nuts have a cancer rate of 28-fold higher than normal individuals.
(2) People chewing betel nuts and drinking have a cancer rate of 54-fold higher than normal individuals.
(3) People chewing betel nuts and smoking have a cancer rate of 54-fold higher than normal individuals.
(4) People who chew betel nuts, smoke, and drink have a cancer rate of 123-fold higher than normal individuals.
(5) According to investigations, 88% oral cancer patients have bad habits of chewing betel nuts.
3. Tuberculosis (TB) is mainly transmitted by air (aerosol). TB patients can be classified into two groups: active and latent types. Active TB patients may become latent after effective treatments. Contrarily, latent patients that refuse treatments or receive improper therapy may become active.
4. Annual regular chest X-ray examination can detect early TB. Sputum examination is a correct method for TB diagnosis, too. Diagnosed patients should receive medications following the instructions of medical staff. TB treatment protocols last usually more than 6 months. Patients have to take quantitative medicines on time with persistence uninterruptedly. Don’t stop taking medicines when symptoms disappear or you feel better. That will cause TB recurrence easily.
5. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common and multiple chronic respiratory disease with high disability and mortality rate. When lungs inhale harmful particles, especially smoke, for a long time, that will cause inflammation reactions in respiratory tracts. Combined symptoms of chronic respiratory diseases, including chronic bronchitis, obstructive emphysema and bronchial asthma, are gradually formed. And that is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Symptoms include cough, dyspnea, tachypnea, anorexia, fatigue, weakness and weight loss. Patients are with disrupted respiratory rhythm, rapid inspiration and short expiration that result in carbon dioxide accumulation, hypoxia and lead to coma and respiration failure.
6. Smoking is considered to be the major cause of COPD, so the most important treatment in early stage is to quit smoking. COPD patients should avoid respiratory infections, accept influenza vaccination every year, and even pneumococcal conjugate vaccine injection.
7. Influenza is caused by virus. At the time of attack, patient’s body temperature may be high up to 40 Centigrade and symptoms include chillness, headache, weakness and soreness, as well as snuffling, running nose, sore throat and cough. If pneumonia complication occurred, patient may die in days. When people get sick, they should quarantine themselves and take medicines according to medical orders. The medicine of anti-influenza shall be taken completely and shouldn’t stop to being taken when patients feel better.
8. To prevent influenza, you should wash hands frequently, wear mask in public area, vaccinate every year (except those who are allergic to eggs). When you feel discomfort, avoid going out to the public places.
9. Norovirus is a virus that may cause inflammation of human gastrointestinal tract. The major symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal colic. There may be complications, such as fever, shiver, headache and sore muscles. Symptoms usually last for 1 to 2 days and become better and better gradually. Norovirus is very infectious and all age groups may be infected. It is common in institutions with high population density, such as schools, hospitals, shelters and nursing centers.
10. In order to avoid norovirus infection, personal hygiene is the most important. Wash hands properly with soap or liquid soap before preparing meals, eating, and after going to toilet and taking care of patients. Avoid raw food and drinks. Cook fishery products thoroughly before eating. Use serving chopsticks and spoons when you eat with others. Clothes and bed sheets contaminated by patients should be changed immediately. Clean and disinfect environments or utensil surfaces with bleach. Wear masks to avoid aerosol infection when going to public places and cleaning up excrements and vomitus of patients.